Unani By Md Khursid Alam Ansari
Stages of Temperament of Drugs (Darjat-e-advia)
The effects of drugs are different on the body, some drugs produce instantaneous effects while others delay. At a particular dose, some drugs produce insignificant effects while others are toxic in the same dose. Hence based on the intensity of effects the immoderate drugs are grouped in four degrees.
Conditions to establish class of intensity of drugs:
Moderate Drug (Dawa-e- mu’tadil) produces their effect after interacting with the innate heat of the body and not brings any changes in the normal moderate temperament (Mizaj-e-Mu’tadil tabyi) of the body. Hence, these drugs are moderate due to their effects.
Based on the intensity of effects the immoderate drugs are grouped in four classes:
The drugs of any of the above mention classes are further subdivided into three degrees – mild, moderate, and severe degree.
Toxic drugs (simmi advia): The effects (Hotness, coldness, moistness, or dryness) of these drugs are toxic that lead to death. For example, Opium (afyoon), and arsenic (samm-ul-far) are toxic drugs. opium is toxic because the intense coldness produced by it causes impairment in blood circulation and the supply of roooh (pneuma) leads to severe hypothermia and finally death. Whereas the intense heat produced by arsenic destroys red blood corpuscles, leading to death. These drugs are toxic due to their lethal effects (kaifiyat). Toxic drugs are therapeutically used after detoxification (mudabbir).
Absolute poison (samm-e-mutlaq): These are deadly due to their structure or peculiar property. To produce an effect it doesn’t need to interact with innate heat. It is never used therapeutically. Potassium cyanide is an example of absolute poison.