Stages of Temperament of Drugs (Darjat-e-advia)

Unani By Md Khursid Alam Ansari


Stages of Temperament of Drugs (Darjat-e-advia)

The effects of drugs are different on the body, some drugs produce instantaneous effects while others delay. At a particular dose, some drugs produce insignificant effects while others are toxic in the same dose. Hence based on the intensity of effects the immoderate drugs are grouped in four degrees. 

Conditions to establish class of intensity of drugs: 

  1. Drugs should be used in normal persons with moderate temperaments.
  2. The drug should be used in a fixed quantity.
  3. Drugs should not be used at repeated doses.
  4. Drugs should be used in moderate climatic conditions.
  5. Any extraneous effects should be omitted.

Moderate Drug (Dawa-e- mu’tadil) produces their effect after interacting with the innate heat of the body and not brings any changes in the normal moderate temperament (Mizaj-e-Mu’tadil tabyi) of the body.  Hence, these drugs are moderate due to their effects. 

Based on the intensity of effects the immoderate drugs are grouped in four classes:

  1. First class: The effects produced by these drugs in the body are stronger than normal but are not strong enough to be felt or distinguished by the body. But after repeated use of these drugs, the produced effects can be felt. 
  2. Second class: After a single use, the effects produced by these drugs are strong enough to be felt or distinguished by the body but do not harm the normal function of organs. Repeated use of these drugs may cause impairment in the function of organs. Repeated use of these drugs may cause impairment in asbabe sitta zaroriya.
  3. Third class: After the single use of these drugs in a healthy person, the effects produced are strong enough to cause impairment in normal physiology and it disturbs the asbabe sitta zaroriya. Repeated or frequent use of these drugs may harm the organs and impair their function. These drugs produce a noxious effect on body fats and fluids. But these drugs are not lethal. 
  4. Fourth class: These are toxic drugs. The effect produced by these drugs in a certain fixed dose causes severe disturbance in normal body physiology. The effects (Hotness, coldness, moistness, or dryness) of these drugs are toxic that lead to death. Hence these drugs should be used with caution. 

The drugs of any of the above mention classes are further subdivided into three degrees – mild, moderate, and severe degree.

Toxic drugs (simmi advia): The effects (Hotness, coldness, moistness, or dryness) of these drugs are toxic that lead to death. For example, Opium (afyoon), and arsenic (samm-ul-far) are toxic drugs. opium is toxic because the intense coldness produced by it causes impairment in blood circulation and the supply of roooh (pneuma) leads to severe hypothermia and finally death. Whereas the intense heat produced by arsenic destroys red blood corpuscles, leading to death. These drugs are toxic due to their lethal effects (kaifiyat). Toxic drugs are therapeutically used after detoxification (mudabbir)

Absolute poison (samm-e-mutlaq): These are deadly due to their structure or peculiar property. To produce an effect it doesn’t need to interact with innate heat. It is never used therapeutically. Potassium cyanide is an example of absolute poison. 

 

 

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